HIV that stands for Human immunodeficiency virus destroys the immune system of the body that fights against all the infections of the body. It has no permanent cure but can be controlled with the help of medication. Some people of western countries are more likely to suffer from HIV because of many factors, i.e. different-sex partners, use of contaminated needles for taking drugs, heterosexual sex, and so on. In this article, we’ll study in detail the transmission, causes, symptoms, treatment, and medications of HIV.
“HIV AIDS is a disease with stigma. And we have learned with experience, not just with HIV AIDS but with other diseases, countries for many reasons are sometimes hesitant to admit they have a problem.”
There are many different types, including glucose, fructose, lactose, maltose and sucrose. Some of these sugars, such as glucose, fructose and lactose, occur naturally in fruits, vegetables and other foods. But many of the foods we consume contain “added” sugars – sugar that we add to a product ourselves to enhance the flavour or sugar that has been added to a product by a manufacturer.
· HIV transmission:
The virus of HIV is transmitted through fluid either in the form of blood, semen, vaginal and rectal fluids or breast milk.
Ways where HIV spread person to person
· Most frequently is through vaginal or anal sex. In this, the heterosexual sex (men having sex with men) has maximum chances.
· Sharing of contaminated needles for injecting drugs.
· Sharing tattoo equipment without sterilization
· During pregnancy, delivery or breastfeeding from mother to baby.
· By chewing a baby’s food before giving it to them.
· Through exposing towards someone’s blood.
HIV does not spread through:
· Through any skin to skin contact
· Through cuddling such as hugging someone or kissing.
· Through sharing your bed, your washroom or washroom equipment
· Through drinks or food
· Through any insect
· Through someone’s saliva or sweat unless it is mixed with contaminated blood
A person who is being treated has many fewer chances for transmitting this virus. But a person living with it without having any treatment is more likely to develop a serious disease called AIDS.
· Causes of HIV
Scientists have identified a chimpanzee in Africa for infecting humans with HIV. They believe that SIV (simian immunodeficiency virus) found in a chimpanzee is the primary source of HIV. When humans hunted these chimpanzees for meat, then this virus entered their body, and they also had to come in contact with their infected blood. The virus then mutated in the human body into HIV.
Studies have shown that in late 1800, this virus has jumped from apes to the human body. This virus then spread slowly to all the parts of the world.
In 1970, HIV existed in the United States too, but people of the United States became aware of this disease in 1980.
· Symptoms of HIV
The acute infection stage is the very first stage of the HIV virus. During the first few weeks, the virus starts to reproduce rapidly, and HIV antibodies are produced by a person’s Immune system, which is actually proteins.
At the initial stage, some people don’t show any symptoms at first, but after a month, they start to show the signs without knowing that they are suffering from this disease. One of the reasons is that the symptoms at the early stage are very similar to the simple flue or any other seasonal virus.
Early symptoms of HIV may include fever, chills, swollen lymph nodes, rashes on the skin, sore throat, headache, nausea, and general pain.
These symptoms are very similar to a simple illness so a person may not think about HIV at the start. So they will not contact any health worker. But either the person has any symptom, or not its viral load is very high. Due to which they have maximum chances of spreading the virus.
After a month, HIV enters its clinical stage. This stage lasts for a very long time. Some people at this stage either have no symptoms at all or minimal symptoms.
Nonspecific symptoms may include:
· Headache or any other pain
· Swollen lymph nodes and recurrent fevers
· Fight, nausea, and vomiting
· Weight loss and night sweat
· Skin rashes and shingles
· Oral or vaginal infection
At the early stage, HIV is still very infectious and can be transmitted to another person. But unless a person is tested, they will not know that they are suffering from this virus. These symptoms may come and go at this stage.
Symptoms in women
Almost all signs of HIV in men and women are the same, but women are less likely to notice any change in their genitals than males.
Women having HIV are at higher risk of:
· Vaginal infections
· Change in the menstrual cycle
· HPV (human papillomavirus)
· Bacterial infections
As soon as you find out that a person has HIV virus in his body, treatment should be started immediately. Antiretroviral therapy is considered to be the best treatment for HIV. It includes medication that helps in stopping the reproduction of the virus that allows the immune system to become active and fight against all the diseases and infections of the body.
It also helps to reduce the probability of converting the virus to AIDS.
The viral load will be undetectable when the treatment is effective and will not be visible in the tests. It may develop again in the body and starts producing CD4 cells.
· HIV medications
Many antiretroviral therapy medications are being used for the treatment of HIV. It destroys the CD4 cells and helps the immune system to fight against the infections of the body.
It reduces the risk of transmitting this virus to other people.
Antiretroviral medications basically have six classes:
· Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors
· Non-Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors
· Protease inhibitors
· Fusion inhibitors
· Integrase strand transfer inhibitors
· CCR5 antagonists
If you want to know that either you have the HIV virus in your body or not, then it’s essential that you should have tests. Knowing your status is always very important because it will make you understand your treatment too. You will make healthy decisions that will help you in the future for saving your life by not being infected. Either you have elementary symptoms of flu or fever, do not take it casually because these are all the symptoms of HIV at its early stage. So, when you see any of these symptoms, see a health worker and tell him about your condition.
“HIV’s never been proven to cause AIDS. HIV ain’t ever killed anybody.”