Pulmonary artery and its role 

The pulmonary artery is the largest artery which connects the heart with lungs. It pumps the blood from the heart to lungs through the right ventricle of the heart. Because of some congenital disability, the pulmonary artery gets narrowed. When the pulmonary artery face problem like narrowing, etc., it is treated by using a stent. A stent is used to repair the pulmonary artery of children and adults who have congenital heart disease.

Many patients get success in repairing the pulmonary artery, but some may get complications. Pulmonary artery stenosis may be defined as the narrowing of the pulmonary artery and described as a severe heart defect. The pulmonary artery is the largest artery which takes the blood from the heart to lungs, as mentioned before. Narrowing of this artery forces the heart to pump blood harder; this increases blood pressure, especially on the right side of the heart. The right ventricle of the heart has to work harder; therefore, it may get enlarge, causing serious health problems.

Recent research on stenting of pulmonary artery 

The American College of Cardiology has done a lot of study on patients with cardiac problems. They researched in 2016 using the data from the Impact Registry of this institute. Researchers took the records of about 1183 patients who were treated at the U.S hospitals between the years 2011 and 2014. The age of those patients ranged from less than a year to over 18 years. The average age of patients under research was nine years. Out of 1183 patients, about 262 patients had single ventricle.

Depending upon the single or two ventricles, researchers planned two different definitions for the measurement of the success rate of stents.

Patients with two ventricles:

Researchers checked the pressure and diameter of the pulmonary artery. The stent is successful if the pressure in the right ventricle decreased, and the diameter of the pulmonary artery increased. It is the one definition, according to the researchers. They also checked another thing, the pressure across the obstructed vessel. It also defines the success of the procedure.

Finding 1:

About 76% of the patients got a successful procedure. The pressure decreased, and the diameter of the pulmonary artery increased. So we can say that the success rate of the method was 76% according to one definition. If we consider the second definition, i.e. change in pressure around the obstructed vessel, the success rate of the procedure was 86%. So, the overall success rate of the process in patients with two ventricles was 75%.

Patients with single ventricle 

Then researchers found the success rate of stenting of the narrow pulmonary artery in patients with single ventricle. The considered the increase in the diameter of the pulmonary artery after the procedure as the success of stenting.

Finding 2:

According to the research on patients with a single ventricle, the success rate of stenting was 75%.

Probability 

According to the researchers, any narrowing of the artery near the origin can be treated with higher chances of success. Any emergency treatment of patients with low body weight has little chances of success. Patients are more at risk when they have a single ventricle as compared to patients with two ventricles.

Discussion 

Phillip Moore, M.D., M.B.A., director of the Pediatric Cardiac Catheterization Laboratory at the University of California San Francisco, has excellent research on such cardiac problems. He stated that patients with single ventricle are higher at risk, and they have higher chances of complications. He said that the analysis, according to the big data, is perfect, defining the risks and success rate of the procedure.

Matthew J. Lewis, M.D., M.P.H., is the principal researcher who conducted the above study, cleared that, “these findings should inform referring physicians and operators regarding patient selection before pulmonary artery stenting”. He further said that there is a need to conduct further studies to minimize the risks associated with this procedure. The success rates should be higher than 75%.

The two definitions of success of stenting resulted in two types of essential data. These two definitions undoubtedly affect the conclusion. For proper measurements and analysis of the results of stenting and its benefits on patients with congenital heart disease, the clear and widely accepted definition of success of stenting required, according to the researchers.

Observing that the two classifications of realization stemmed in statistically noteworthy different rates that could mark conclusions haggard from the findings, he said that there is a necessity for a vibrant arranged upon explanation of practical victory. Likewise, the definitions of major and minor hostile trials must clinically apply and recognized to allow for exact sizes and assessments.

However, doctor “congratulates the authors for an excellent investigation of the largest dataset presented on pulmonary artery stent inserting.” He heartens the congenital interventional community to absorb in a vigorous confab on definite explanations of practical triumph so that “we can gain the exact aids of our ‘big data’ struggles.”

Conclusion 

Stenting of pulmonary artery benefits patients with congenital cardiac disease. It defines the success rate of the procedure according to patients with single or two ventricles. According to the research, the procedure is less successful in patients with single ventricle as compared to patients with double ventricles. Researchers cleared that there is a need to conduct more research to get a more success rate. After stenting of the narrow pulmonary artery, the diameter of the artery increases, thus decreasing the pressure in the artery. They researched patients with cardiac disease; it collected data from the IMPACT registry and analyzed further. Furthermore, stenting of pulmonary artery benefits patients with congenital cardiac disease is discussed.

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